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Jun 14, 2024 Daily PIB Summaries

CONTENTS G7 (Group of Seven)Consumer Food Price Index G7 (Group of Seven) Context: G7 leaders start their annual summit on June 13 looking to double down on support for Ukraine in its war with Russia and offer a united face in confronting China’s political and economic ambitions. Relevance: GS II: International Relations Dimensions of the Article: About G7 About G7: G7 stands for Group of Seven, which is an international intergovernmental economic organization consisting of seven member countries.The member countries are the United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom.As of 2022, G7 countries make up 10% of the world’s population, 31% of the global GDP, and 21% of global carbon dioxide emissions. History: G7 was founded in 1975 as the G6, consisting of the six richest countries in the world at that time.Canada joined the group in 1976, and the group became known as the G7.The group meets annually to discuss global economic issues and make decisions that can affect the global economy. Objectives: The main objectives of G7 are to promote economic growth and stability, enhance international trade, and coordinate policies on economic issues among the member countries.The group also focuses on addressing global challenges such as climate change, cybersecurity, and geopolitical tensions. Meetings and decisions: G7 leaders meet annually at the G7 Summit to discuss global economic issues and coordinate policies.Decisions made by the G7 can have a significant impact on the global economy and international relations.The G7 also collaborates with other international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Criticism: The G7 has been criticized for being too exclusive, as it only includes the richest countries in the world and does not represent the interests of developing nations.Critics also argue that decisions made by the G7 can have negative consequences for developing countries and can perpetuate global economic inequality. Consumer Food Price Index Context: Consumer Price Index numbers on base 2012=100 for rural, urban and combined for May 2024. Relevance: Facts for Prelims About the Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI): Definition: The Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI) measures the change in retail prices of food items consumed by the population.Purpose: It is a specific measure of inflation focusing solely on the price changes of food items in a consumer’s basket of goods and services.Usage: The CFPI is a sub-component of the broader Consumer Price Index (CPI) and is utilized by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to monitor inflation.Release: The Central Statistics Office (CSO), under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI), began releasing CFPI data for three categories—rural, urban, and combined—separately on an all-India basis from May 2014.Methodology: Similar to the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the CFPI is calculated monthly using the same methodology.The current base year used is 2012.The CSO revised the base year for CPI and CFPI from 2010 to 2012 in January 2015.

Jun 14, 2024 Daily Current Affairs

CONTENTS Enhanced Oceanographic Research Needed to Address Ocean CrisesSatnami Community Protest Escalates in ChhattisgarhRising Nitrous Oxide EmissionsNew Non-Permanent Members of UNSCKala-AzarNagarahole Tiger ReserveRepresentation of Women in the New Indian Cabinet Enhanced Oceanographic Research Needed to Address Ocean Crises Context: Recently, the UNESCO State of Ocean Report 2024 highlighted the need for enhanced oceanographic research and data collection to address escalating ocean crises, including warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and rising sea levels. Relevance: GS III: Environment and Ecology Dimensions of the Article: Key Findings of the State of Ocean Report 2024:Effects of Global Warming on the Indian OceanWay Forward Key Findings of the State of Ocean Report 2024: Data and Research Gap: The report highlights a crucial lack of data and research on the rapid warming of oceans, emphasizing the need for ongoing data collection to monitor and address the impacts on ocean health and resilience. Ocean Warming Trends: The upper 2,000 meters of oceans have warmed at a rate of approximately 0.32 Watt/m² from 1960 to 2023, which has increased to 0.66 Watt/m² in the last two decades. This warming is expected to persist, leading to irreversible changes over the long term. Earth Energy Imbalance (EEI): Human activities have increased greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in the oceans absorbing more EEI.EEI represents the balance between the energy the Earth receives from the Sun and the energy it emits back into space.Around 90% of this imbalance is being absorbed by the oceans, causing a rise in ocean heat content (OHC) in the upper 2,000 meters of the water column. Ocean Heat Content (OHC): The oceans are storing more heat, which might inhibit ocean layer mixing and reduce oxygen levels, leading to deoxygenation. Deoxygenation: This process can have adverse long-term effects on the health of coastal and large marine ecosystems and the communities that rely on them. Ocean Acidification: There is a global increase in ocean acidification across all ocean basins and seas.The open ocean has seen a continuous decline in pH levels, with an average decrease of 0.017-0.027 pH units per decade since the late 1980s.Coastal waters can also become acidic due to natural processes and human activities like nutrient runoff from agriculture and industry. Rising Sea Levels: From 1993 to 2023, the global mean sea level has risen at a rate of about 3.4 mm per year.Enhancing space-based and in situ observing systems is necessary for monitoring sea level rise on global, regional, and coastal scales. Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal (mCDR): The report recognizes the growing interest in mCDR technologies aimed at capturing and storing atmospheric CO2.Techniques include altering seawater chemistry or adding nutrients like iron to stimulate the growth of microscopic plankton that can sequester carbon. Challenges and Research Needs: Interest in mCDR technologies is increasing, with support from start-ups, the United States, and the European Union.Challenges include the limited implementation of mCDR and potential unintended effects on the ocean carbon cycle, which could threaten marine life in the long term. Effects of Global Warming on the Indian Ocean Warming Trends: The Indian Ocean is heating up faster than other oceans, which can lead to irreversible changes, including more frequent cyclones and heatwaves.Monsoon and Cyclone Formation: The Indian Ocean is crucial in forming monsoons and pre-monsoon cyclones, impacting South Asia, East Africa, and West Asia.Cyclone Characteristics: Although the North Indian Ocean produces fewer cyclones compared to the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, these storms are intensifying more rapidly, becoming increasingly deadly.Case Study – Cyclone Fani: In 2019, Cyclone Fani caused significant damage in Odisha, India, due to its strong winds and storm surge.Marine Heatwaves: These are becoming more common and severe, leading to coral bleaching and negatively affecting marine life. For example, the 2010 marine heatwave in the Indian Ocean resulted in extensive coral bleaching in the Lakshadweep Islands.Impact on Upwelling: Ocean warming can reduce upwelling, which brings cooler, nutrient-rich waters to the surface, affecting fish populations that rely on these nutrients. The Arabian Sea has seen a decline in upwelling, impacting the sardine fishery.Ocean Acidification: Increased absorption of carbon dioxide makes oceans more acidic, harming marine organisms with calcium carbonate structures, such as corals and shellfish. The Great Barrier Reef in Australia and coral reefs in the Indian Ocean are already experiencing significant damage.Oxygen Depletion: Warmer waters hold less oxygen. Increased stratification due to warming can hinder deep ocean mixing, leading to deoxygenation in deeper layers and creating dead zones where marine life cannot survive.Food Security Threats: Disruptions in fisheries, cyclones, and droughts pose risks to the food security of millions who depend on the Indian Ocean.Rising Sea Levels: Global warming causes sea levels to rise, threatening coastal communities with flooding and erosion. Low-lying areas in India, like Mumbai and Kolkata, are especially at risk.Tourism and Recreation Impact: Industries relying on healthy coral reefs and beaches will suffer from bleaching and coastal degradation. Way Forward Real-Time Weather Forecasting: Improve real-time weather forecasts and cyclone warnings for coastal communities. India can enhance the capabilities of the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) for more accurate and timely predictions.Geo-Engineering Solutions: Implement large-scale geo-engineering techniques such as stratospheric aerosol injection and marine cloud brightening to address oceanic warming.Sustainable Coastal Development: Promote practices that build seawalls and levees to minimize infrastructure and community damage during extreme weather events. For instance, planting casuarina trees along the Odisha coast has proven effective in mitigating cyclone impacts.Public Awareness and Drills: Conduct awareness campaigns and regular evacuation drills to educate coastal communities about cyclone risks and evacuation procedures.Marine Protected Areas: Establish protected areas to conserve coral reefs and other fragile ecosystems.International Collaboration: Foster international efforts to address climate change and limit global warming, benefiting the Indian Ocean in the long term. -Source: Down To Earth Satnami Community Protest Escalates in Chhattisgarh Context: A huge mob from the Satnami community torched dozens of vehicles, pelted police personnel with stones, and set afire the Superintendent of Police office building in Chhattisgarh’s Baloda Bazar district. The protesters were dissatisfied with the police’s handling of a case involving the desecration of a ‘Jaitkhamb’, a structure of sacred importance to the Satnamis, and are demanding a CBI probe. Relevance: GS I: History Dimensions of the Article: Satnamis CommunityProtest of Satnamis Community – Revolt of 1672Revival of the Satnamis Satnamis Community Identity and Origin:The Satnamis believe in God whose name is ‘truth’ and are a significant group within the Scheduled Caste (SC) population in Chhattisgarh.They are considered an offshoot of the Ravidassia community.The community was established on April 21, 1657, by Bir Bhan of Narnaul, Haryana. Udhodas, a disciple of Saint Ravidas, was the first spiritual leader.Location and Population:They primarily inhabit the plains of Chhattisgarh’s central region, including Bilaspur, Durg, Rajnandgaon, and Raipur.Principles and Beliefs:The sect emphasizes three principles: adorning the attire of a Satnami devotee, earning money through proper means, and not tolerating injustice or oppression in any form.Satnamis are believed to exert political influence by voting collectively. The majority of the 10 assembly segments allotted for SCs are occupied by community representatives.Political Influence:Mini Mata, the first female Member of Parliament from Chhattisgarh, is revered by the community. She entered the Lok Sabha by winning the 1955 by-election. Political parties often invoke her to appeal to Satnamis for votes. Protest of Satnamis Community – Revolt of 1672 Revolt Against Mughal Rule:The Satnami revolt occurred during the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb around today’s Mahendragarh district of Haryana.The revolt began when a Mughal soldier killed a Satnami, leading to about 5,000 Satnamis taking up arms.They expelled the Mughal administrators from the town and established their own administration.Uprising Support:The revolt gained support from Hindus in Agra and Ajmer, who were dissatisfied with Aurangzeb’s strict Islamic policies, including the revival of the Jizya tax, banning music and art, and destroying Hindu temples.Suppression:Aurangzeb personally commanded the suppression of the revolt, sending troops with artillery.The aftermath saw attempts to kill every remaining Satnami, leading the remnants to flee and remain disorganized and leaderless for a long time. Revival of the Satnamis Reorganization and Social Identity:The most important Satnami group was founded in 1820 in the Chhattisgarh region by Saint Ghasidas, a farm servant from the lower (Chamar) caste.His Satnam Panth (“Sect of the True Name”) provided a religious and social identity for many Satnamis.Teachings and Practices:Saint Ghasidas preached ethical and dietary self-restraint, social equality, and wrote Nirvan Gyan to propagate his teachings.Navigating Hindu Hierarchy:Connections with the Kabir Panth at different historical points have helped Satnamis navigate their position within a larger Hindu hierarchy. -Source: Indian Express Rising Nitrous Oxide Emissions Context: According to a new study by the Global Carbon Project (GCP) titled “Global Nitrous Oxide Budget (1980-2020),” nitrous oxide emissions have been rising continuously between 1980 and 2020. The study found that in 2021 and 2022, nitrous oxide was released into the air faster than ever before, despite the need to cut greenhouse gases to combat global warming. Relevance: GS III: Environment and Ecology Dimensions of the Article: Key Findings of the StudyImplications of Rising Nitrous Oxide EmissionsSolutions to Reduce Nitrous Oxide EmissionsConclusion Key Findings of the Study Nitrous Oxide (N₂O) Emissions:Human activities have led to a 40% increase in N₂O emissions (3 million metric tons annually) from 1980 to 2020.The top five emitters of N₂O are China (16.7%), India (10.9%), the US (5.7%), Brazil (5.3%), and Russia (4.6%).India ranks as the second largest emitter of N₂O globally, following China. Per-Capita Emissions:India’s per capita emission of N₂O is the lowest at 0.8 kg/person, compared to China (1.3 kg/person), the US (1.7 kg/person), Brazil (2.5 kg/person), and Russia (3.3 kg/person). Atmospheric Concentration:The concentration of atmospheric N₂O reached 336 parts per billion in 2022, a 25% increase over pre-industrial levels, surpassing IPCC estimates.Currently, there are no technologies available to remove N₂O from the atmosphere. Sources of Nitrous Oxide Emissions:Natural Sources:Oceans, inland water bodies, and soil contribute 11.8% of global N₂O emissions (2010-2019).Human-Driven Sources (Anthropogenic):Agricultural activities account for 74% of human-driven N₂O emissions, mainly due to the use of chemical fertilizers and animal waste on croplands.The growing use of nitrogen fertilizers in food production is increasing N₂O concentrations.Other significant sources include industry, combustion, and waste treatment.Increased demand for meat and dairy products has led to higher N₂O emissions through increased manure production. Emission Trends:Agriculture: Emissions from agriculture continue to rise, while those from other sectors, such as fossil fuels and the chemical industry, are stable or declining.Aquaculture: Emissions from aquaculture are growing rapidly, especially in China, though they are only a tenth of those from chemical fertilizers on land.Regional Patterns: Of the 18 regions studied, only Europe, Russia, Australasia, Japan, and Korea showed decreasing N₂O emissions. Europe experienced the largest decrease (1980-2020), while China and South Asia saw the largest increases (92% from 1980 to 2020). Implications of Rising Nitrous Oxide Emissions Global Warming Potential:N₂O is about 300 times more effective than CO₂ at trapping heat over 100 years, significantly impacting global warming.Ozone Layer Damage:N₂O breaks down in the stratosphere, releasing nitrogen oxides that damage the ozone layer, leading to increased UV radiation exposure.This increased UV radiation can cause higher rates of skin cancer, cataracts, and harm to ecosystems reliant on UV protection.Agricultural Impact:The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture is a major contributor to N₂O emissions.Growing food demand is likely to increase N₂O emissions further, creating a conflict between food security and climate goals.Climate Agreement Challenges:Rising N₂O emissions pose a significant challenge to achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement, which aims to keep global warming below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. Solutions to Reduce Nitrous Oxide Emissions Optimized Fertilizer Use:Utilizing soil sensors to optimize fertilizer application can reduce unnecessary nitrogen input, thereby minimizing N₂O formation.Precision agriculture techniques can cut N₂O emissions by up to 50%, as noted in a Journal Nature study. Nitrification Inhibitors:These additives slow down the conversion of ammonium in fertilizers to nitrate, which is a readily available form for N₂O-producing microbes. Cover Crops:Planting cover crops during fallow periods helps retain soil moisture and nitrogen, reducing the risk of N₂O release. Anti-Methanogenic Feed:Using feeds like ‘Harit Dhara’ (HD) or developing similar anti-nitrogen feeds for cattle will help reduce methane and nitrogen emissions. Cyclic Fuel Gas Generation:Implementing a cyclic method to generate fuel gas from cattle dung, instead of allowing nitrogen emissions from anaerobic degradation, can minimize N₂O formation. Nano Fertilizers:These fertilizers deliver nutrients directly and slowly to plant roots, minimizing excess nitrogen and reducing nitrous oxide emissions. They enhance nutrient absorption, potentially requiring less fertilizer overall. Emission Trading Schemes:Implementing a cap-and-trade system for N₂O emissions can encourage industries and farmers to adopt cleaner practices. The European Union’s success with similar schemes for other greenhouse gases provides valuable insights. Financial Support for Farmers:Governments can offer financial assistance to farmers transitioning to sustainable practices that minimize N₂O emissions. China’s significant reduction in N₂O emissions since the mid-2010s has been partly due to targeted subsidies for improved fertilizer management. Increased Research Funding:Increasing funding for research on N₂O mitigation strategies, including improved fertilizers and waste management techniques, is essential for long-term progress. Stricter Regulations and Cleaner Technologies:Implementing stricter regulations and promoting cleaner technologies can reduce N₂O emissions from industrial sources such as nylon production and nitric acid manufacturing. Combustion Process Optimization:According to the IPCC Climate Change 2021 report, optimizing combustion processes in vehicles and power plants can help reduce N₂O emissions as a by-product. Waste-to-Energy Conversion:The World Bank report highlights that advancements in waste-to-energy conversion and effective treatment of wastewater and agricultural waste can significantly lower N₂O emissions from these sources. Conclusion Mitigating nitrous oxide emissions effectively requires a comprehensive approach that combines technological innovations, regulatory frameworks, financial incentives, and international cooperation. By adopting these strategies, substantial progress can be made in reducing N₂O emissions and mitigating their impact on global warming and climate change. -Source: The Hindu New Non-Permanent Members of UNSC Context: Recently, Pakistan, Somalia, Denmark, Greece, and Panama have been chosen as non-permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC), serving a 2-year term from 1st January 2025 to 31st December 2026. Relevance: GS II: International Relations Dimensions of the Article: How are new members elected to the UNSC?United Nations Security CouncilMembershipFunctions and Powers of UNSC How are new members elected to the UNSC? The selection process for non-permanent seats on the UNSC involves regional groups putting forward candidates. There are four regional groups.The newly elected members are Somalia representing the African Group, Pakistan representing the Asia-Pacific Group, Panama representing the Latin America and Caribbean Group, and Denmark and Greece representing the Western European and Others Group.Typically, each regional group agrees on candidates to present to the General Assembly for a two-year term.This process ensures regional representation within the Security Council, reflecting global geopolitical diversity and interests.The new members will replace outgoing countries such as Mozambique, Japan, Ecuador, Malta, and Switzerland.The UN Security Council plays a crucial role in maintaining international peace and security.However, its effectiveness can be hindered by the veto power of its permanent members. United Nations Security Council The Security Council is one of the six main organs of the United Nations.The Permanent Residence of UNSC in the UN Headquarters New York City, USA.Its primary responsibility is the maintenance of international peace and security.While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to member states, only the Security Council has the power to make decisions that member states are then obligated to implement under the Charter- Hence, it is the only body of the UN with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.Resolutions of the Security Council are typically enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget. Membership It has 15 Members (5 as Permanent Members and 10 as Non- Permanent Members), and each Member has one vote.The Five permanent members are: China, France, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Each of the Permanent Members has Veto Power over every decision of UNSC.The Ten non-permanent members are Elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly.Each year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members (out of ten in total) for a two-year term. The ten non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis.As per the rules of procedure, a retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election and the election is held by secret ballot and there are no nominations.The presidency of the Council rotates monthly, going alphabetically among member states. Functions and Powers of UNSC Under the United Nations Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are: to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;to take military action against an aggressor;to recommend the admission of new Members;to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice. -Source: The Hindu Kala-Azar Context: In the wake of the rising public health threat caused by the parasitic infection visceral leishmaniasis (VL),(kala-azar), the WHO launched a new framework to guide health authorities, policymakers and other stakeholders to eradicate the disease in eastern Africa. Relevance: GS III- Health, Prelims Dimensions of the Article: About Kala AzarWhere has kala-azar been detected in India?What does the treatment include? About Kala Azar Kala-azar is a slow progressing indigenous disease caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania.In India Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease.The Kala-azar is endemic to the Indian subcontinent in 119 districts in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal).This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world. Elimination is defined as reducing the annual incidence of Kala Azar (KA) to less than 1 case per 10,000 people at the sub-district level.It is a neglected tropical disease affecting almost 100 countries.Neglected tropical diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries. There are three types of leishmaniasis Visceral leishmaniasis, which affects multiple organs and is the most serious form of the disease.Cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores and is the most common form.Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin and mucosal lesions. The Visceral leishmaniasis, which is commonly known as Kala-azar in India, is fatal in over 95% of the cases, if left untreated. Symptoms of Kala azar It is associated with fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), fatigue, enlargement of the liver, spleen and nodes and suppression of the bone marrow.It also increases the risk of other secondary infections. Diagnosing Kala azar The first oral drug found to be effective for treating kala-azar is miltefosine.The most common method of diagnosing kala azar is by dipstick testing. However, this method is highly problematic. Where has kala-azar been detected in India? In West Bengal, the districts where the maximum number of cases were registered include Darjeeling, Malda, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur and Kalimpong.The districts of Birbhum, Bankura, Purulia, and Murshidabad have also reported a few cases, while none have been detected in Kolkata yet.The disease is endemic in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.An estimated 165.4 million people are at risk, according to data from the National Centre for Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NCVBDC).In the country as a whole, there has been a significant decline in cases over the years.In 2014, around 9,200 cases were reported while in 2021 the number fell to 1,276 cases. What does the treatment include? Anti-leishmanial medicines are available for treatment.Vector control is also recommended by the WHO, which means reducing or interrupting the transmission of disease by decreasing the number of sandflies in surroundings through insecticide spray, use of insecticide-treated nets, etc.The government aimed to eliminate the disease in India by 2015, but that deadline was missed.However, the number of cases has been brought down significantly through the National Kala-Azar Elimination Programme.Medicines, insecticides and technical support were given by the central government, while state governments provided for costs involved in implementation.The program was implemented through State/District Malaria Control Offices and the primary health care system. -Source: Indian Express Nagarahole Tiger Reserve Context: An elephant that was part of the historic Mysuru Dasara celebrations died of electrocution near Karnataka’s Nagarahole Tiger Reserve recently. Relevance: GS III: Environment and Ecology About Nagarahole Tiger Reserve: Location: The reserve is located in the districts of Mysore and Kodagu in Karnataka, spanning an area of 847.981 sq km.Name: It is named after a small river, ‘Nagarahole’ (which means snake stream in Kannada), that winds through the habitat before merging with the river Kabini.Connectivity: It borders the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) to the south and the Bandipur Tiger Reserve to the southeast.Biosphere: The reserve is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.Reservoirs: The Kabini and Taraka reservoirs are significant water bodies within the reserve, located in the west and southeast, respectively.History:The reserve’s origin as a protected area traces back to the Wodeyar dynasty, the former rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore, who used Nagarahole as an exclusive hunting reserve.Established as a wildlife sanctuary by Coorg State in 1955.Upgraded to a national park in 1988 and declared a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger in 1999.Vegetation: The primary vegetation type is southern tropical, moist, mixed deciduous forest, with the eastern part transitioning into dry deciduous forest.Flora:The forests feature swampy fallows known as ‘hadlu’, dominated by grasses and sedges, preferred by wild herbivores.Key tree species include rosewood, teak, sandalwood, and silver oak.Fauna: The reserve is home to a diverse range of carnivores and herbivores, including tigers, leopards, Asiatic wild dogs, sloth bears, Asiatic elephants, gaur, sambar, chital, muntjac, four-horned antelope, wild pigs, mouse deer, and southwestern langurs. -Source: Indian Express Representation of Women in the New Indian Cabinet Context: Of the 30 Union ministers in the newly formed Indian cabinet, only two are women. Overall, the number of ministers in the central council has reduced from 10 in the previous government to seven. Relevance: Facts for Prelims About the Report: The Global Gender Gap Report 2024, published by the World Economic Forum (WEF), underscores ongoing gender inequality across multiple global sectors. Findings: Top-Ranking Countries: Iceland continues to be the most gender-equal nation for the 14th consecutive year, with a gender gap score of 91.2%.Other Nordic nations, such as Norway, Finland, and Sweden, also feature prominently in the top five.India’s Ranking: India is placed 129th in this year’s index, a slight drop from the previous year.This decline is attributed to minor decreases in ‘Educational Attainment’ and ‘Political Empowerment’, though ‘Economic Participation and Opportunity’ saw slight improvement.India ranks the third-lowest among South Asian economies, trailing behind Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan. -Source: Down To Earth

Jun 13, 2024 Daily PIB Summaries

CONTENTS Bhagwan Birsa MundaSoftware Technology Parks of India Bhagwan Birsa Munda Context: The Jharkhand Governor and Chief Minister recently paid tribute to tribal icon Birsa Munda on his death anniversary. Relevance: GS I- History About Birsa Munda Birsa Munda (also known as Dharti Aaba (Father of Earth)) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe.He spearheaded a tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the Bengal Presidency (now Jharkhand) in the late 19th century, during the British Raj, thereby making him an important figure in the history of the Indian independence movement.The revolt mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon. Birsait Having gained awareness of the British colonial ruler and the efforts of the missionaries to convert tribals to Christianity, Birsa started the faith of ‘Birsait’.Members of the Munda and Oraon community joined the Birsait sect and it turned into a challenge to British conversion activities.Further, he urged the Mundas to give up drinking liquor, clean their village, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery. Munda Rebellion Munda Rebellion is one of the most important tribal movements led by Birsa Munda in the south of Ranchi in 1899-1900.The ‘Ulgulan’ or the ‘Great Tumult’ as the movement came to be called, aimed at establishing Munda Raj by driving out the British.The movement identified following forces as the cause of the misery the Mundas were suffering like The British Land policies destroying their traditional land system, Hindu Landlords and Moneylenders taking over their land, and Missionaries criticizing their traditional culture.On 3rd March, 1900, Birsa Munda was arrested by the British police while he was sleeping with his tribal guerilla army at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).The Munda Rebellion forced the colonial government to introduce laws so that the land of the tribals could not be easily taken over by dikus (Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908).It showed that the tribal people had the capacity to protest against injustice and express their anger against colonial rule. Software Technology Parks of India Context: Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) recently celebrated its 33rd Foundation Day. Relevance: Facts for Prelims Software Technology Parks of India (STPI): Establishment: STPI was established and registered as an autonomous society under the Societies Registration Act 1860, in 1991, under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology.Objective: To implement Software Technology Park (STP) and Electronics Hardware Technology Park (EHTP) schemes, and to set up and manage infrastructure facilities. Initiatives and Functions: Ecosystem Nurturing:Nurturing the pan India start-up ecosystem through initiatives like Centres of Entrepreneurship (CoEs) and the Next Generation Incubation Scheme (NGIS).Platforms:Launched a networking and resource discovery platform called SayujNet.Introduced the STPI Workspace portal (STPI-Workspace).Ananta:Announced “Ananta,” a hyperscale cloud made by Indians for Indians.Provides conventional Compute Infrastructure Services (IAAS) along with PAAS (platform as a service), SaaS (software as a service), and graphics processing unit (GPU) based services. Reports: DeepTech Knowledge Report:Released the report ‘Cutting-Edge Tech Forging India as a Software Product Nation’ to provide strategic insights into the current state of cutting-edge technologies in India.